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Understanding Reflection, Refraction, and Diffraction

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Reflection, refraction, and diffraction are three fundamental concepts that have profound significance in the world around us. Understanding reflection, refraction, and diffraction is crucial to explaining how light behaves and how different materials interact with it.

In this post, we will delve into these three concepts in detail, exploring their significance in various fields such as optics and physics. Whether you are just starting out your first physics class or just generally curious about how light works, this post aims to be a source of information on how reflection, refraction, and diffraction work.

What is Reflection

Reflection is defined as the bouncing back of light waves when they hit a surface, like a mirror or a still body of water. Understanding the properties of reflection is essential in designing reflective surfaces used in various applications, from mirrors to optical instruments. Reflection also plays a crucial role in digital displays such as televisions and smartphones. By understanding the principles of reflection, we can better understand how light and other electromagnetic waves behave and interact with their environment.

Law of Reflection: The Angle of Incidence (Incoming Light) is Equal to the Angle of Reflection (Outgoing Light)

The Law of Reflection is a fundamental principle in the study of optics. When light waves hit a surface, they may be absorbed, transmitted, or reflected depending on the material and angle of incidence. If the surface is smooth and the angle of incidence is not too steep, the majority of the light will reflect off at the same angle it came in. This is known as the Law of Reflection, which states that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.

What is Refraction

Refraction is the bending of light waves when they pass through a medium with a different density, such as water or glass. This process occurs because light waves travel at different speeds in different materials. When light passes through a denser material, it slows down, causing it to bend towards the normal, or perpendicular to the surface.

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Conversely, when it passes through less dense material, it speeds up, causing it to bend away from the normal. This phenomenon is why objects appear distorted when viewed through a curved lens or when viewed from underwater.

Index of Refraction: The Measure of How Much a Medium Can Bend Light

The index of refraction is defined as the measure of how much a medium can bend light. When light passes through a medium with a higher index of refraction, it bends more than when it travels through a medium with a lower index of refraction. The index of refraction of a material also affects how much light it reflects and how much it absorbs. Knowing the index of refraction of various materials is essential in designing lenses and other optical devices. The index of refraction can also be affected by the wavelength of light passing through the material, which can lead to phenomena such as dispersion, where different wavelengths of light bend at different angles.

Total Internal Reflection: When Light Waves are Reflected Back Into a Medium Instead of Passing Through It, Creating a “Mirror Effect”

Total internal reflection occurs when the angle of incidence is such that the refracted angle would be greater than 90 degrees. In other words, the light wave won’t be able to pass through the boundary and gets reflected back into the original medium. This phenomenon is most commonly observed in situations where light is passing through a denser medium (like water or glass) into a less dense medium (like air). The boundary between the two media is called the critical angle, and any angle greater than that will result in total internal reflection.

What is Diffraction

Diffraction occurs when incoming light waves encounter an obstacle or aperture that is smaller than their wavelength. As a result of this interaction, the light waves bend or spread out, causing them to create a pattern of light and dark areas, known as a diffraction pattern. The pattern produced by diffraction depends on the size and shape of the aperture, as well as the wavelength of the light.

Diffraction Grating: A Tool That Uses a Series of Parallel Lines to Diffract Light Waves and Create a Spectrum of Colors

Diffraction Grating is a tool that is used in optics and physics to split white light into its component colors. It is made up of a flat surface with a series of narrow, equidistant lines, also known as grating.

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When white light is directed onto the grating, each line acts as a tiny reflecting surface, causing the light waves to interfere with each other as they pass through, creating a pattern of bright and dark bands. The narrow spacing of the lines in the grating causes the waves to bend and refract as they pass through, creating a spectrum of colors. The angle at which the colors are dispersed depends on the spacing of the lines in the grating, as well as the wavelength of the light.

Applications: Understanding These Principles is Essential for Designing Optical Systems

The principles of refraction, reflection, diffraction, and total internal reflection are essential for understanding how light behaves in different media and designing optical systems. Everything from microscopes to eyeglasses to telescopes relies on these principles. By manipulating the properties of materials such as the index of refraction, angles of incidence and angle of refraction, and the use of diffraction gratings, designers are able to create devices that can magnify objects, measure distances, and detect light from distant stars. These principles also play an important role in photography, where lenses are used to focus light onto a film or digital sensor. Without a thorough understanding of these principles, optical technology would not be possible.

In conclusion, understanding the concepts of reflection, refraction, and diffraction is crucial in fields such as optics, physics, and engineering. These principles have practical applications in everyday life and in the development of technology. By comprehending how light behaves when it interacts with different surfaces or materials, we can create more efficient and effective optical devices. As we delve further into the depths of science, we uncover more about the mysteries of our universe and how to harness it for our benefit.

Dealing With Postpartum Depression

Having a new child is a magical time. You’re happy to add a new addition to the family and you’re ready to do whatever you can to be able to provide. Speaking of which, follow here if you want some cool gift ideas for your baby. With that said, if you feel sad, tired, or just lost all motivation after you have a baby, you may be dealing with postpartum depression.

Postpartum depression is depression that comes after having a baby. When you give birth, there are some massive hormone changes, and this can definitely cause depression. In some mild cases, you may feel upset, tired, or just don’t feel like doing much, which is common with a new mom. However, in extreme examples, you may become reclusive and not care for your baby that much. Postpartum depression goes away after a while, but can last longer if left untreated. Here are some ways you can treat postpartum depression.


There’s a bit of a stigma against new mothers sleeping. Society almost expects you to be superhuman and be able to function without sleep. Indeed, it can be more difficult to sleep when you have a baby, but you should still get some rest.

Not getting enough sleep can worsen your depression or your anxiety. If you want to sleep better, make sure you sleep when the baby sleeps. And don’t forget to unwind. A nice bath, some herbal tea, and all that good stuff can go far in helping you improve your rest. Go to a sleep doctor if you’re having problems.


Once you are physically able to, get some exercise. Not just to get your body back, but because exercise can help reduce the symptoms of your depression. Taking a mild stroll around the park with the baby, or moderate aerobics can do wonders. Your brain will release endorphins and this will help improve your depression by quite a bit. Just make sure you’re not pushing your limits, particularly after you’ve given birth. Talk to your doctor if you’re still unsure.

Postnatal depression 1 year after birth

You might not feel well because of the significant changes that your body is undergoing. Don’t be afraid to look at the mirror and take pride in the scars, weight gain, and stretch marks left from pregnancy and childbirth. Giving birth to a human being is a feat worth celebrating. Don’t let unrealistic body standards set by social media and magazines dictate how you should look. 

Join support groups for women, and you’ll be surprised to see confident and beautiful women flaunting their bodies no matter the size and shape. You will get tremendous support from many other women who have gone or are going through the same struggles as you. 

You might just be surprised how much confidence you can get from the support from women like you. Love yourself no matter your age, body type, or experiences. You’re beautiful and loved. If you feel like you want to wear a pair of bikinis from your favorite swim store, by all means, take a dip in those cute swimsuits. If you want to dress up and look pretty like a doll, do it. Do it not for the people around you, but for yourself. 

It’s Okay to Ask for Help

If you need help with your baby, there is no shame in asking for it. If you want to hire a sitter or have Grandma watch over the babywhile you get some rest, it’s okay. With that said, make sure you aren’t spending too much time depressed and alone, as this can worsen everything.

Get a New Hobby

Finding a hobby can help you if you’re depressed. Working on a puzzle, looking up how to do a side hustle, maintaining a  new car, the list goes on. By finding a new hobby, this can help stimulate your mind, and it’s a good way to unwind after having a baby. Just make sure you have the time and the resources to do so, and then try it out.

Eat Healthy

Don’t forget to eat healthy whenever you’re a new mom. Eat foods high in omega-3s, eat junk food as a special treat, and add more proteins, fruits, and veggies to your diet. These foods can be good for the brain and help you when you’re having trouble dealing with the depression of having a baby. Just make sure that your healthy habits stay after the depression ends.

Seek Help

If your postpartum depression is still bad, there is no shame in talking to a therapist and asking for help. They can help you with that and any other issues you may be having, such as any questions or concerns about being a new parent. Click here for more info:

How to Not Let a Divorce Affect Your Kid

Divorce is one of the hardest things a family can go through and often requires the support of close friends and experienced lawyers like Attorney Douglas Thomas. Today, I’m not here to talk about a divorce itself, I am here to reassure you that contrary to popular belief, you can raise a happy, loved and healthy child even after a divorce. I will explain how to ensure your child takes it easy and doesn’t blame themselves for what happens. Here are some important things to keep in mind when helping your children cope with divorce.

Stay Civil

Although this tip applies even if there is no divorce involved, its importance is more after the divorce. No matter where you and your spouse stand, do not let go of positivity in front of the children. Constant arguing and backbiting can make a child feel like they have to pick sides and stop caring about the one they leave out. This should not be the case! You and your spouse need to remain civil and respectful throughout.

Keep them in the Loop

It may seem like a good idea to keep everything hush, hush and not let your child know the details but I advise you to keep them in the loop. This shows them they are important and still a part of the family. You can arrange different activities for them to keep their mind busy but do not leave them out of what is going on.

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Don’t Assume the kids Understand

Read this carefully, do not assume your child will work through emotions and understand everything on their own, they will not! They may know what the general idea of a divorce entails but they will not understand why both of you are taking this decision. Sit down and talk to them, the kids need you now more than ever. Ask them how they feel, let them know how much you love them every day. Just because the parents aren’t getting along doesn’t mean your relationship with the children has to change. Explain to them whatever they want to know. If you’re not sure how, learning these few tips might help.

Be Consistent

You cannot tell your child you love them while breaking the news of a divorce. You have to be consistent in whatever you do; from attending recitals and other events to spending time with them. Just because you are getting a divorce doesn’t in any way liberate you from your child’s responsibility. Both of you are still parents and need to maintain a sense of normality in your kid’s life.

Be Considerate

This is a bit tricky but is just as important as any other tip I’ve given you. You need to be considerate of your child’s feelings and what they’re going through but at the same time, do not let it be okay for them to get away with offenses. If your child is angry or rude to you, you need to understand where it’s coming from and do not let it slide for too long. A divorce does not mean free play for your child. For instance, if your child skips school, talk to them and let them express how they’re feeling. Do not let them miss an entire week. There should be a line and you need to know where and when to draw it. Do not worry, you’ll get the hang of it.

Child psychology divorce custody references

The Power of Positive Thinking


A dose of positivity can go a long way in our lives. With the current pandemic situation, it is now more important than ever to find that daily dose.

But how do we find it amidst all this chaos and crisis? Well, the answer is you have to look for it consciously. It might seem daunting at first, but once you let it reach you, the amount of potential that you can unlock within is immense. 

When you are radiating in a positive, happy vibe, your energies are in sync with this universe, and the power to apply the law of attraction is within your hands. 


What is Positive Thinking?

So what exactly is positive thinking? It is the ability to harness a mindset that believes that no matter how difficult a situation is, achieving results, achieving the desired success is possible. This mindset applies not only to your job but also to your social, personal, and day to day lifestyle.

You need to understand that almost half the war is won in your mind when you are on a battlefield. With a brave attitude, strong belief, you can achieve things that may seem impossible to others. If you give up even before trying, no strategy, no plan or weapon can help you win.

Tips to Be Positive

To help you achieve this power of manifestation here some things that might help you:

  • When something sets you into a pessimistic path, divert yourself immediately to any activity that can bring a smile even if it means playing with your dog or cat for a minute
  • Identify your triggers and eliminate them as much a possible
  • Choose an exercise you like and stick to it daily
  • Sleep well
  • Focus on all the good things that have happened in your life and relive those moments in your mind
  • Once you are in the zone of positive vibration, channelize that to envision a future containing more of it
  • Practice gratitude every day
  • Believe in yourself.

Sometimes it’s easier said than done but as I said, in the beginning, to feel positive you have to put in some effort on your part. In these trying times, when it’s difficult to feel motivated or find inspiration, hope is our biggest resort. 

Even in difficulty, positive thoughts can be your candle and bring out the best in you. Once you start exercising this sense of positive energy and incorporate it into your daily life, you will see how your outlook and life in general changes dramatically.

Let’s take the example of this pandemic. It is tough, daunting, and sometimes merely claustrophobic. But if you look at the silver lining, you will notice- how the earth is healing, how wildlife is thriving, how courageous acts of humanity are coming out, the carbon emission is lowering at record levels, vaccines are developing at an incredible pace and how you have got all the time in the world to work on yourself! 

This is one of the many instances where you can channel your mind to think in the light of positivity and liberate yourself into a happier self at the end of the day.


Just like all good things, positive thinking is also a matter of practice. But if you can bring it out and unleash its full potential, you will be surprised ho much you can accomplish. From career to health, an attitude can make all the difference. So be positive, trust yourself, and have faith that everything will be okay!

Tough Times: How to Help a Child Cope

If you could, you’d surround your child in bubble wrap, never let them get hurt, take away all the possible sources of pain, and give them a lifetime of rainbows and candy sprinkles. Of course, you can’t do that – not even close! But there are plenty of steps you can take to make sure your kids get through life’s tough times with their confidence, optimism, and sense of humor intact. Read on to learn a few tips and tricks for comforting a child when things get rough, without coddling them.

Don’t Be a Pollyanna

One of the most important things you can to do prepare your children for life’s troubles is to acknowledge them. Don’t pretend that everything is OK if it’s not. Teach children that facing problems head on is always a better strategy than hiding under the covers and hoping the boogeymen go away. 

Talk Things Through

Encourage your kids to talk about what they’re feeling. Whether it’s the coronavirus pandemic that’s bugging them, the recent death of a pet, conflicted emotions about becoming a sibling, or anything else, help them tell you what they feel. Rather than grilling them, though, find ways to subtly show that you are listening when they are ready to talk.

Teach Healthy Coping Skills

If you routinely reach for that bottle or wine or bar of chocolate when you are upset, your child will learn to numb her own feelings with food, alcohol, drugs, or other destructive, unhealthy ways to cope. Here are some ideas for healthy coping skills that the whole family can all rely on:

  • Aerobic exercise like a walk or bike ride
  • Meditation or a calming yoga routine
  • Deep breathing exercises
  • Drawing, painting, or doing a craft
  • Taking a bubble bath
  • Talking to a friend or family member
  • Doing an act of kindness for a neighbor or stranger
  • Snuggling and spending quiet time together
  • Gardening or just getting some fresh air
  • Listening to your favorite music and maybe dancing it out!

Help Them Sleep

You know that sleep can be hard to come by when you’re stressed. The same is true for your kids, so give them a helping hand. An extra bedtime story, some lavender essential oil, a white-noise app, a snuggly stuffed animal to cuddle, a soft nightlight, or a gentle backrub as they drift off can all help a child to sleep.

Watch for Signs of Trauma

Think your kids are too young to get stressed out and feel traumatized? Think again. According to the San Diego personal injury lawyers at, who deal with families in the aftermath of accidents, trauma can happen to anyone, especially if someone is injured in an accident they couldn’t control. If your child shows symptoms of PTSD during a crisis or after an accident, seek out professional help. 

Such signs can include withdrawing, acting out, changes in personality or mood, violent or destructive behavior, or regressing to behavior they’ve otherwise outgrown, such as bedwetting or wanting their binkie back.

Cut Them Some Slack

Do you and your spouse ever let housework slide when you’re worried or overwhelmed? Ever order a pizza or Chinese takeout on a bad day when cooking from scratch is just too much? Cut your kids some slack too. It can make a world of difference. Don’t do this too often; kids need routine even more than usual during difficult days, and chores are a part of that. But it will be OK if they skip picking up their toys now and then or let the dinner dishes wait until tomorrow.

Have as Much Fun as You Can

Lastly, just because you’re dealing with something heavy doesn’t mean you can’t cut loose, laugh, and have a little fun. Heck, make that as much fun as possible! Watch a goofy comedy together, start a (gentle) pillow fight, play games, or just make silly faces at each other until you all start laughing. It will do you all a world of good!Giving your children coping skills and resilience to get through when the going gets rough is one of the best lessons you can teach them. Share your stress-busting strategies and family togetherness tips in the comments!

How To Make Sure Water Is Safe To Drink During Emergencies

When an emergency happens, water can get contaminated with germs. Since we are dealing with a worldwide coronavirus pandemic, we all need to learn how to protect ourselves and the people we love. 

The best thing that you can do during an emergency is to use bottled water. This is always the safest possible choice. When it is not available, consider the following methods. 

safe water

Boiling Water

When safe bottled water is not available, all the water you consume needs to be boiled. This is a sure way to kill most organisms that cause diseases, like parasites, bacteria, and viruses. 

As you might know, boiled water has a very flat taste. This can be improved by simply pouring it from a container to the next. Then, let the water stand. Alternatively, a pinch of salt can be added for every quart of boiled water. 

When you notice that the water is cloudy, you should filter it through a paper towel, coffee filter or clean cloth. Draw off only clear water and bring it to a rolling boil for a period of at least one minute. Boiled water needs to cool down and you have to then store it inside clean sanitized containers that have tight covers. 

Using Disinfectants

Small quantities of water that is filtered can be made by the use of chemical disinfectants. This includes unscented household chlorine bleach, which is dangerous if improperly used so you have to be extremely careful. Disinfectants can easily kill disease-causing viruses, bacteria but should never be considered as being full-proof. 

In order to disinfect the water with the use of iodine or chlorine tablets, simply follow the instructions offered by the manufacturer. When you use unscented liquid chlorine bleach, look at the active ingredient. Usually, there is around 5% sodium hypochlorite present. Use the internet to find the appropriate bleach amount to add to water. Always respect that. Use a teaspoon, metric measure or medicine dropper and be sure that the mixture was properly stirred. The water has to sit for a minimum of half of an hour before use. 

Using Filters

You can so easily contact Fix It Right Plumbers in Melbourne or specialists in your area in order to install filters in your home or you can even do it yourself. There are also many portable filters that are capable of removing many parasites like Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Choose a water filter that has small pores so that parasites can be removed. Just remember that most of these filters cannot remove harmful viruses and bacteria. 

Always carefully follow the instructions of the manufacturer when you buy the water filter. Also, after you filter, add a good disinfectant, like chlorine dioxide, chlorine or iodine. This is needed to kill the remaining bacteria and most viruses. 

Using Distillation

Last but not least, you can also make your water safe to drink through distillation. This process basically involves boiling water and then collecting steam inside a container to eventually become water again. The process is very simple and literally anyone can do it.

Shielding Your Children from Bad News Can Destroy Them

“Most things are good, and they are the strongest things, but there are evil things too, and you are not doing a child a favor by trying to shield him from reality. The important thing is to teach a child that good can always triumph over evil.” 

– Walt Disney

As parents, we want to shield our children from the horrors of the world. We would like to have them believe that the world is all rainbows and cupcakes. Many parents go way over to keep pretending that the world is as peachy as they tell their children it is.

protect kids

While we might do everything in our power to shield our children from the dark side of the world, they will eventually come face to face with it. They will be unprepared because we raised them in denial.

The older they get, the difficult it becomes to process new things. It is like realizing whatever they have believed in has all been a fairytale, a lie. They stress out trying to understand the new reality. They often don’t understand it, or if they do, it breaks their spirit.

Not the Gory Stuff

Nobody is telling you to expose your children to the really dark side of everything wrong with the world. That will ruin their little minds anyway. No, what I am saying is to not shield them from something that is very common, and they are going to have to face it in their lives at one point or another.

Things like death, kidnapping, mental health issues, relationship problems between the parents, violence, sexual harassment, etc. are usually hidden from children. We need to expose them to the basics of these things so that they know to identify the patterns if any of these things happen to them.

Balance it Out

When you introduce them to a new horror and teach them how to be safe and how to tackle the situation if need be, make sure to balance it out with something good that the world has to offer.

Children are very impressionable, and if we keep showing them the bad side of the world, they are going to grow up thinking that the world is bad. Remind your children that human nature has a lot of good in it as well. 

Talk to them about the generosity of the global community while you tell them about the dangers of cybercrimes. Use positive sides of things to balance out the negative. This is a good way to help them not lose their innocence and a positive view of the world, but still, be ready to take anything head-on.

Final Thoughts

Yes, the thought of your precious child knowing about the harsh realities makes you squirm, but it is for their own good. While talking about the positive impact of humans may not seem like a big thing, but it can be a source of great comfort when they learn about the big bad wolf.

It is our job to prepare the children for the future, for their adult life. We can’t do that by painting a picture of a world that couldn’t be farther from the truth. Show them the reality but teach them to see the silver lining in every storm.

4 Things to Consider When Choosing a Nursing Home for Your Aging Parents

 Age turns on everyone at some point, including your beloved parents. Before you know it, you might be considering a home for your parents where they can get the 24/7 help and support they need. This is a difficult decision, and it must be fully considered if you want your parents to have the best experience. 

There are many things that go into making the transition more comfortable for your parents, but one of the best things you can do is choose a nursing home that fits their needs. Unfortunately, not all nursing homes are created equally.

parents at home

Most nursing homes are under or improperly staffed. Reports of abuse, neglect, and oversight abound throughout the U.S. In Illinois, for example, about 41.5 percent of the 723 licensed nursing homes are considered “below average” in their standard of care, according to a report on nursing home negligence.

This is unacceptable for your parents. If you’re unable to care for them, the next best thing is a nursing home that will treat them as if they’re family with the highest standard of care possible. 

Here are a few things to look for in the nursing homes you’re considering.

1. Location

Ideally, you’ll find a nursing home within 20 miles of where you live. If it’s in your neighborhood, that’s even better, so you’ll be able to connect with your aging parents more often. This is not only ideal for your parents’ morale, but you’ll also be close enough to keep tabs on the home and the standard of care. 

The location should not be the only consideration, however. It’s better to choose a fantastic home 30 miles away than one with a bad reputation in your neighborhood. It will make visits slightly more challenging, but you can rest assured that your parents are being treated well.

2. Consider the Amenities 

The amenities in nursing homes vary significantly. Some offer only basic medical care while others are like an all-inclusive resort with gourmet food, activities, classes, and more for your elderly parents to enjoy on the daily.

Of course, the all-inclusive-style facilities will be more expensive, and you’ll have a hard time getting government grants or funding for them. But if money is no object, these nursing homes are the cream of the crop. 

Otherwise, look for a facility in your price range with a good reputation and a few extra amenities like private quarters, assisted living software , chef-prepared meals, and on-site activities. These small things will drastically improve your parents’ quality of life. 

3. Look at the Staff

Most of the problems with nursing homes arise because of problems with individual staff members. There are many issues you can identify from the start to help your parents avoid an abusive or uncomfortable encounter in the home. 

First, look at the staffing ratio. Most nursing homes publish their staffing ratio online according to state law. It might shock you to learn some of the ratios in nursing homes throughout the country. According to, the average RNA and CNA ratios are as follows:

  • 32:1 nurse and 16:1 CNA – Ohio
  • 44:1 nurse and 44:2 CNA – Tennessee
  • 50:2 nurse and 15:3 CNA – New York
  • 66:2 nurse and 66:4 CNA – Illinois
  • 50:1 nurse and 30:1 CNA – Georgia
  • 60:1 nurse and 60:3-4 CNA – Nebraska

This is simply not enough staff to provide the care needed for a large facility. Many nurses report being in charge of 40 patients in one night, which spreads them too thin. Even the best nurses are likely to make a mistake in this environment. 

You’ll also want to examine the staff turnover rates. If the nursing home has a high turnover, it likely means the nurses are being overworked in challenging conditions. 

4. Hold Interviews 

When you’ve completed your research and narrowed your final options, interview a managerial representative. Prepare detailed questions to help you get a sense of how the facility does business and their ideal standard of care. 

Lisa Esposito, a staff writer for U.S. News, suggests several questions to ask before putting your parents in a certain home. Among her list include:

  • How much time do your aids spend with the residents daily? 
  • What services do you have? 
  • What are the results of your nursing home surveys? 
  • How do you prevent bedsores? 
  • How do you avoid infections
  • How do you promote diversity? 

The answers to these questions can be telling. A good nursing home will adequately answer all questions, while a poorly managed nursing home will fail the test or potentially refuse an interview altogether. 

You simply can’t be too careful when putting your aging parents in a home. There are many wonderful options out there; do your due diligence to put your parents in the best one.

Things to Look for in a New Primary Care Doctor

Due to the aging population and various technological advances, the healthcare industry is one that investors should closely monitor. With all the advancements, it is amazing what the medical field is producing and it might be time to learn more about healthcare etf.  Most importantly, doctors have special skills that are helping their patients with many problems and getting them back out to live their lives with health and comfort. 


While you are doing your research on the financial end, looking for a good doctor is of utmost importance. When it comes to who knows you and your body the best, one of the top people on the list should be your primary care doctor. If your doctor that you go to right now does not make you feel comfortable or take the time to listen to and really get to know you, then you are really missing out on a very important healthcare relationship. This means that it may be time to start looking for a new primary care doctor for you and your family so that you feel as though you are being heard and that your doctor is taking care of all your physical and mental needs when you go in.

Finding the right doctor is one of the most important relationships you can have for your physical and mental well-being and your overall general health. Below are a few things to look for when you start the process of looking for a new primary care doctor.

Ask friends and family for recommendations

Going straight to Google and searching for a new doctor can be very overwhelming as there are probably dozens of options right there in your local area alone. In order to get a real feel for a great family healthcare doctor, ask the people that you trust first. Talk to your close friends and your family members and ask them where they go and if they are satisfied. You will probably get a great list of doctors from this technique alone, but it is important to remember that not everyone looks for the same things that you do. The perfect doctor for your friends may not be the perfect doctor for you, and that is okay.

Find someone who is close to you

Your new primary care doctor is going to be the person you go to see for regularly scheduled health visits and the person you have to go too when you are feeling not so great. For this reason, you want to go to someone who is near to you and easy to access so you do not have to drive too far when you are feeling under the weather. A conveniently located doctor also means that you will be more likely to keep your wellness appointments so you stay healthy as you should.

After getting recommendations, do your own research

This is an important step that a lot of people miss. Many people get a great recommendation and go into a new office totally blind. This should not be something you do. After you get your list of possible new doctors for your family to go see, it is important to do your own research on each person. Make sure that the doctor is board-certified, go through your insurance and ask them to do a quality check for you, and use to your advantage by looking up a certain doctor to see how high they are rated for quality.

Ask a doctor about their care philosophy

During your very first doctor visit, it is important to make sure that you ask your doctor about his or her philosophy when it comes to treating their patients. For example, you may be a person that likes to get medicine for everything so you can get better as fast as possible and be back to normal in no time, while the doctor you are visiting prefers a more natural and holistic approach to treating patients or vice versa. This could mean that you will clash on what you believe the best type of treatment for your body is and you may be better off with a different doctor who aligns him or herself more with your beliefs. This is important information to consider when deciding to stick with a new doctor or to continue on your search.

Ultimately, it comes down to listening to and trusting your gut. Your instincts will tell you right off the bat if this new doctor is really listening to you and taking into account all of your family’s needs and concerns or if he is trying to rush you out of the door. It is critical that you feel a bond of trust so that you can feel comfortable asking questions and speaking up when you think something is wrong.

Essential First Aid for Parents

As a parent, you have to be prepared for your child to injure themselves. Children often run around and don’t consider the danger of potential hazards. It’s all apart of being a child and it is good if you, as a parent, can handle any small injuries on your own. When treated properly you can prevent scarring and quicken the healing process. It is also good for you to have some basic knowledge in case of an emergency, being able to act quickly could save their life. 

first aid

This article is designed to give you a rough guide. If you want to learn more about first aid, such as how to use a defibrillator, then you may be able to find a class local to you. The Boston scientific defibrillator lawsuit has resulted in defibrillators being made better. 


If your baby is choking, then you should pick them up and place them along your forearm or knee. You should place their head downwards to allow gravity to help relieve the obstruction. You then need to apply firm blows on their back which will help to force the object out. For a video guide, click here. If this doesn’t work, then turn them over and apply blows to their chest. 

For a child older than twelve months, you will need to do the same thing but instead of lying them down stand them up and get them to lean forward before hitting their back. If this does not work then grab them under the ribs and pull up firmly. 

It may be difficult for you to hit your child, however, if they are not breathing then you need to get the object out. While you do what you can, get someone else to phone an ambulance


Burns are common amongst young children. You should run a burn under cold water for ten minutes or more to take away all of the heat. Then cover the area with cling film to keep it clean. The cling film will also stop the air from hitting it which can cause pain. 

Febrile seizure

Seizures are common in children because they cannot regulate their body temperatures well. Their skin will become hot, their eyes might roll back and they will twitch and clench their firsts and arch their back. 

This can be scary but the best way to handle it to cool them down. Open a window – cool them down gradually to avoid shock. 

When the seizure is over, place them on their side and tilt their head back. This is the recovery position

Prevent further seizures by keeping them cool and hydrated whilst administrating paracetamol. Hospital is not needed but you may want to take them to put your mind at ease. 

Head bump

Children often bump their heads. Usually, it can be treated with something cold – e.g. frozen peas – and lots of cuddles. However, if they are sick, become drowsy or unbalanced, or their behavior changes then take them to the hospital. Symptoms may not present themselves until hours after the injury.